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Revised 'L' Regulations were put into force in April 2006, superseding the 2002 papers.
The following Government publications are freely available and can be viewed in pdf format by selecting your chosen images shown below.

Foreword

The introduction of Building Regulations, Approved Documents L1A, L1B, L2A and L2B Conservation of fuel and power has been in force since 1st April 2006. These updated and revised regulations have been introduced in an effort to further reduce the Nation’s carbon dioxide emissions from buildings.

This guide defines basic requirements of the Building Regulation and details the methods of compliance. For simplicity the guide demonstrates calculations for fenestration products by the Elemental method. Requirements for overhead glazing and centre pane U-values, etc are considered in separate sections. Conservatories that are separated from the host building are exempt, but note that the interconnecting doors and windows must comply with the requirements of AD L1 and L2, as if they were external elements.

Introduction to the Requirements
The Building Regulations for England and Wales - Parts L1A, L1B, L2A & L2B Conservation of Fuel & Power. 2006

New Build and Replacement
The current document has been effective since 1 April 2006 and is in four parts; Part L1A for new Dwellings (domestic applications includes both private and public housing) and Part L2A for new non dwellings or non-domestic applications. The required overall U-value for aluminium roof glazing is 2.2 W/m2K. There are different U-value requirements in the Approved Documents for wood and PVC-U frames (2.0W/m2K) than for metal-framed glazing (2.2W/m2K). This difference is to allow for the improved solar gain factors related to slender metal frames provided by increased glass areas.

Replacement Only
Part L1B covers existing Dwellings (domestic applications includes both private and public housing) and Part L2B covers existing non dwellings or non-domestic applications.
Replacement rooflights may be assessed solely by the centre pane U-value of the glazing, which shall be a maximum of 1.2 W/m2K. Compliance is achieved by the normal application route to Local Authority Building Control Departments. Alternatively for domestic replacement work, by self-certification once an installation company has been accepted as meeting the requirements of FENSA Ltd *.
* FENSA Ltd is a Government-approved private company.

1.Guide to Patent Glazing requirements of Building Regulation Approved Document L1A & L2A: 2006

U-value requirements
The U-value is measured in Watts per square metre per degree of temperature difference (W/m²K). It is a measurement of the rate at which heat is lost through a material. The lower the U-value the lower the heat loss. A whole glazed area U-value is determined from the area weighted average values of three components, the frame, the centre pane and the insulated glass unit edge effect.
The U-value requirements for roof and vertical patent glazing are given in the table below for the Elemental Method: -




For Dwellings the maximum areas for windows, doors and rooflights should not exceed 25% of the total floor area.
For non-dwellings see the figures below: -






Methods of compliance

There are three methods to establish acceptable thermal performance needs for an installation. Failure to achieve the desired result by one method of calculation does not imply that the glazing is unsuitable and by considering an alternative calculation method the same areas of glazing may comply. The methods differ for dwellings and non-dwellings, they are: -

Dwellings to Approved Document L1

1. Elemental Method in which the area weighted average U-value of all the fenestration elements must not exceed the specified values.
There are three methods of establishing the product U-values:
a) Use the Indicative value tables A2 and A3 in the Document
b) By calculation in accordance with the Standards specified in the Approved Documents and the BRE Guide BR 443 ‘Conventions for U-value calculations’.
c) By measurement (hotbox) on sample windows of size and configuration given in GGF Data Sheet 2.2.
Note: These tests are generally time consuming and expensive, particularly on non-standard sizes, compared with calculation methods.

2. Target U-value Method, this is under the control of the building designer and takes into account insulation levels of individual elements of the building envelope and the efficiency of the heating system.

3. Carbon Index Method, as with 2 this is under the control of the building designer, developed from the SAP method of the previous Regulations L.

Non-dwellings to Approved Document L2

1. Elemental, this is similar to the Elemental Method procedure for dwellings.

2. The Whole Building Method is under the control of the building designer and is based on achieving a maximum emission or energy consumption. This permits flexibility with “trade off” between different areas of the building (e.g. floors / walls / roofs / windows).

3. Carbon Emissions Calculation Method - as with 2 this is under the control of the building designer. The method allows designs that have no greater carbon emissions than a notional building of the same size and shape designed to comply with the Elemental Method.

Note for simplicity only the Elemental method is consider in this publication.

Test and calculation assessment dimensions – Windows & Doors

To demonstrate conformity the standard window dimensions of 1.23 m wide by 1.48 m high are specified in the CEN Window and external pedestrian door product standard pr EN 14351, defined in BRE Guide BR 443 ‘Conventions for U-value calculations’, also the Glass and Glazing Federation data sheet 2.2 as illustrated below. Alternatively, the size and configuration of the test sample should be representative of those to be installed in the building.


Indicative window U-values







2. Routes to compliance

2.1. Indicative U-values. The indicative whole window U-values given in Tables A2 and A3 of the Regulation and reconstructed on page 7 of this publication, provide conservative values for guidance on typical window products. Compliance with the specified U-values should require no more than a cross section detail of the window framing with dimension of the thermal barrier separation width, the gap between panes and a statement of glazing type, with its emissivity.
Variations in framing dimensions and more precise values make the detailed calculation procedures a preferred alternative.

2.2. Measuring thermal performance by test

2.2.1 BS EN ISO 12567-1 Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters-Determination of thermal transmittance by hot box method: Part 1: Windows and doors

This method tests a window assembly to the assessment dimensions as stated previously. The limitation of this type of test is that the assessment sample may not be representative of those to be installed onto the building.

2.2.2 prEN 12412-2 Windows doors and shutters – Determination of thermal transmittance by hot box method – Part 2: Frames

This method tests the window frame profile with an insulation panel with thermal conductance of 0.035 W/mK; Frame U-values determined by this test method should not be used in condensation prediction assessments

2.3 Simplified calculation frame and whole window U-values

BS EN ISO 10077-1 Thermal performance of windows doors and shutters – Calculation of thermal transmittance Part 1: Simplified method.
This Standard provides a simplified method of calculating frame and whole window U-values and requires only basic dimensions of the window framing and thermal barrier and data from tables to be entered into the equation.

This simplified calculation procedure was used for the preparation of the table of indicative window U-values (Tables A1 and A2 of the Building Regulation).

A typical calculation to this standard is set out in Annex A of this publication and the BRE U-value Calculator (http://projects.bre.co.uk/uvalues) includes window U-values to this standard.
Note. This simplified method is not suitable for curtain wall framing.

2.4. Numerical calculation
prEN ISO 10077-2 Thermal performance of windows doors and shutters – Calculation of thermal transmittance Part 2: Numerical method for frames.

This standard provides a more detailed numerical approach for assessing frame and whole window U-value, by computer simulation software. The procedure in the standard, known as the ‘linear’ method, assesses the frame U-value with an insulation panel replacing the glazing. With the ‘linear’ method of the standard two conditions have to be simulated to obtain the results, one to calculate the U-value of the frame, and a second simulation to calculate the linear thermal transmittance ?, of each glazing condition.

A typical calculation to this standard is set out in Annex B of this publication.

ISO DIS 15099 Thermal performance of windows, doors and shading devices – Detailed calculations.

The BRE Conventions includes the ‘linear’ method of prEN ISO 10077-2 and ISO DIS 15099, which includes the ‘linear’ method but allows for the alternative ‘edge’ method. It is also suitable for structural sealant glazing systems (SSG) and condensation prediction assessments. Both methods produce essentially the same whole window U-values.
A typical calculation to this standard is set out in Annex B of this publication.

Software
Software, such as Bisco, FRAME, WINDOW 5 and THERM 5 for the simulations is inexpensive, with WINDOW 5 and THERM 5 being free issue, including comprehensive instruction manuals, from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory http://windows.lbl.gov

2.5. Comparison of whole window U-value calculation results by ‘linear’ and ‘edge’ methods.

In calculations based on example D.4 of prEN ISO 10077-2 set out in Annex B, it will be seen that there is no variation in the calculated U-value, ie 2.17W/m2K. Any variations in calculated values will therefore be minimal and well within experimental uncertainty.

Further evaluation confirms this result. An exercise assessing forty-four window combinations, with aluminium, aluminium wood clad, PVC-U, steel and wood framed windows with three to five glazing options, by both ‘linear’ and ‘edge’ methods, the variations between the methods are insignificant.
A comparison of calculation example results to the three standards is given in Annex B of this publication.

2.6. Presentation of results

The presentation of results for test or calculation is specified in the appropriate standard and include typical, cross section frame details with principle dimensions, material thermal conductances and boundary conditions.
Results should be rounded to one decimal place. When the value is less than 1.0, it should be rounded to two decimal places. In accordance with normal conventions 2.24 becomes 2.2 and 2.25 becomes 2.3 (see also BRE Conventions for U-value calculations, BR 443 Section 6.)

2.7. Simulators and self-certification

In the future it may become necessary to consult an Independent Authority who may carry out the assessment or approval of simulators.

In this assessment the simulator will be expected to carry out the ten example calculations, D.1 to D.10 given in Annex D of prEN ISO 10077-2: Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters – Calculation of thermal transmittance – Part 2: Numerical method for frames and submit results for approval.

3. Curtain wall/coupled windows

The Building Regulations Approved Document L2 does not make a positive statement concerning composite/coupled windows and curtain walling other than to refer to Trade documentation, produced by the CAB and the CWCT. In view of this it is highly recommended that the building designer consults the curtain walling designers/suppliers at an early stage of a project in order that a proper and constructive assessment of the building performance can be made.
Curtain Wall being a cladding fenestration system, larger than a composite window, usually provides an enclosure to the building facade. These systems are generally constructed of vertical and horizontal members, assembled and connected together on site known as ‘stick’ systems or assembled and glazed off site, in panel form, known as ‘unitized’ systems. Assemblies pass in front of and are attached to the supporting structure of the building (floors etc) providing a grid for the glazing and infill panels to create a continuous facade to selected areas of the building. The basic requirement in ADL 2 for such facades is 2.2 W/m²K for glazed or vision areas, with 0.35 W/m²K for spandrel areas considered as walls. Any internal walls or structure behind the panel area will improve this U-value.
Considering the Elemental Method of calculation, the weighted average of the installation (large composite/coupled windows and curtain walling) can be considered as a “glazed area” with a U-value of 2.2 W/m²K.
Calculations are to be carried out in similar manners to the CAB document 'Setting the Standard No 4', or the detailed calculations described in section 2.

The percentage of the curtain wall façade glazed vision areas (ADL2, Table 2) should relate to the entire external wall not only to the areas of curtain wall facade. Buildings with large areas of glazed curtain wall should be designed by the 'Whole Building' method or the 'Carbon Emissions' method. It is recommended that the performance of these large areas be assessed at the design and planning stage so that any necessary adjustments may be made to the overall building performance concept.
An alternative approach is proposed in a quartet of CWCT publications, on the subject but generally relate specifically to the 40% maximum allowable glazed vision area related to the curtain wall façade area. i.e. a module with 40% vision area and 60% spandrel area with a weighted average U-value of 1.2 W/m²K for the whole vision and spandrel area, allowing for benefits from other building works. This U-value is not applicable where the 40/60% proportion area arrangement differs. In such cases the area weighted average U-value has to be calculated.
Pr EN13947 – Thermal performance of curtain wall – Calculation for thermal transmittance – Simplified method has been published for public comment but cannot yet be considered or assessment of standard size curtain wall assemblies.

4. Rooflights and overhead glazing
In accordance with document L, any part of a roof or inclined glazing having a pitch greater than or equal to 70° can be considered as a wall.
The procedures for measuring and calculating the U-values of roof windows and overhead glazing installations are based on assessing the product in the vertical plane. For sloped glazing an allowance is made in ADL1 for dwellings, tables A1 and A3. However for non-domestic buildings, ADL2, no adjustment has to be made. Therefore the compliance of glazed roof windows, patent glazing and other forms of sloped glazing to ADL1 and ADL2, should be based on products assessed in the vertical plane.
Rooflights and overhead glazing are in a similar situation to curtain wall facades, insomuch as the CEN standard relating to rooflights, prEN 12567-2 (Thermal performance of windows and doors -Determination of thermal transmittance by hot box method - Part 2: Roof windows and other projecting windows), has been published for public comment but is not yet approved.
The test specimen size is slightly larger than the vertical window size of 1.23 x 1.48 m as the roof or projected window has to fit over, rather than into the test rig aperture. The window is tested in the vertical plane.
Calculation of U-values for roof and overhead glazing by the “edge method” of ISO DIS 15099 provides suitable results for the overhanging glazing conditions which are not fully framed. Figure 3 illustrates this and shows a typical un-framed condition in the vertical position as required for test purposes.

6. Shop fronts and entrances
"Display windows are glazed areas to display goods on sale within the building - these are not required to meet the 1 April 2002 disciplines of AD L2.
Vehicle showrooms are classified as display areas up to 3m high adjacent to ground or footpath level; above this level the glazing should follow the requirements of AD L2.
Shop entrance doors, vehicle access and other large heavy duty doors need not be considered in the thermal performance assessment.
Similarly such doors which can be considered for public access when fitted with mechanical control devices and those likely to be left open for operational reasons are not required to meet the regulations."

7. Conservatories and Atria
Assemblies of vertical and overhead glazing do not need to comply if a wall and door(s) separate them from the host building. Such a wall and door(s) must be in accordance with the requirements of ADL1 and 2 and any heating should be separately controlled. Otherwise the conservatories and atria should be in accordance with the regulations.

8. Comparison of thermal assessments calculation methods
All methods and standards referred to in this publication strive to produce an overall window or façade area U-value but differ in their approach and for this reason it is not possible to directly compare the separate elements of, for example frame and glazing edge derived by different methods, see also Annex B3. Whichever method is used it should be noted that obtaining better values than those from physical test should not be possible.
In the case of condensation prediction U-frame values derived by BS EN ISO10077-1 or prEN ISO 10077-2 where the appropriate glazing is replaced by an insulating panel it will be found that much lower frame U-values result than are found in the as- built construction. The CAB publications- Setting the Standard No. 3 and 4 provide useful information on assessing the surface condensation risk of aluminum fenestration framing.